# Questions tagged [measurable-functions]

The measurable-functions tag has no usage guidance.

51
questions

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votes

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114 views

### Sobolev embedding into measurable functions

Consider the fractional Sobolev space
$$
W^{k,2}(\mathbb R^n):=\big\{f \in \mathcal S'\,\big|\,(1+\|\xi\|)^k\hat f(\xi)\in L^2(\mathbb R^n)\big\}
$$
for some $k\in\mathbb R$, and let $\mathcal M$ ...

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33 views

### Convergence in distribution (measurable functions)

The definition of convergence in distribution:
Let $S$ be a seperable metric space and $(X_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ a $S$-valued sequence of random variables. Then $(X_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ converge in ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

85 views

### Measurability of maximum likelihood estimator under conditions from Lehmann's "Theory of point estimation"

I'm trying to prove that MLE from the proof of one theorem in Lehmann's "Theory of point estimation"
(the theorem is below) is a measurable function. I know that under some regularity ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

279 views

### Continuity of real functions

The following question concerns that without $ZF+DC$, can every function be "a little bit" continuous?
Question Is it consistent with $ZF+DC$ that for any function $f:[0,1]\to [0,1]$ and ...

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vote

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81 views

### $ \lim _{n \rightarrow \infty} \int_{E} \frac{f_{n}^{2}(x)}{1+f_{n}^{2}(x)} \mathrm{d} m=0 $ associated with convergence in measure [closed]

For $m E<+\infty$, why the sufficient and necessary condition of $\left\{f_{n}(x)\right\}$ converge in measure to $0$ is
$$
\lim _{n \rightarrow \infty} \int_{E} \frac{f_{n}^{2}(x)}{1+f_{n}^{2}(x)}...

**0**

votes

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78 views

### Measurability of centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal function with doubling measure

Let $(X, d, \mu)$ be a metric space with doubling measure $\mu$ a.e. every open ball has finite and positive measure $\mu$ and there exists $C>0$ such that
$$\mu(B(x,2r)) \le C\mu(B(x,r))$$
for ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

174 views

### Dense subcategory of measurable spaces

Recall the notion of a dense subcategory $\mathcal{D}$ of a category $\mathcal{C}$. It means that the restricted Yoneda functor $\mathcal{C} \to \mathrm{Hom}(\mathcal{D}^{op},\mathbf{Set})$, $A \...

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99 views

### What are the functions such that $ \lVert f + g \rVert_p^p = \lVert f \rVert_p^p + \lVert g \rVert_p^p$?

Let $1 \leq p \leq 2$. I am looking for a characterization of the couples $(f,g)$ of functions $f,g \in L_p(\mathbb{R})$ such that
$$ \lVert f + g \rVert_p^p = \lVert f \rVert_p^p + \lVert g \rVert_p^...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

144 views

### $f_\epsilon=\inf\{f(y):|y-x|<\epsilon\}$ is measurable Borel [closed]

I found this problem I have tried but it has been a bit complicated for me,
Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ a bounded function. For each $\epsilon>0$, let $f_\epsilon (x)=\inf\{f(y):|y-x|<\...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

126 views

### Measurable selection involving measure valued random variable

Let $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mathbb{P})$ be a probability space and let $\mathcal{M}(\mathbb{R}^d)$ be the space of finite signed measures on $\mathbb{R}^d$ endowed with the narrow topology (i.e. the ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

126 views

### Can there be an upper bound on the Borel rank of the preimages of Borel sets under a surjective Borel map?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be standard Borel spaces, $Y$ uncountable, and $f : X \to Y$ a surjective Borel map. Is it possible that there is a countable ordinal $\alpha$ such that for each Borel set $B \subseteq ...

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votes

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52 views

### Sequence of open sets converge in characteristic function to an open set?

Let $\Omega\subseteq\mathbb{R}^N$ be an open and bounded set with Lipschitz boundary. Consider a sequence of open sets $\omega_n\subseteq\Omega,\ n\in\mathbb{N}^*$ such that there is a Lebesgue ...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

44 views

### Countable sup property of extended measurable functions

Let $(S,\Sigma,\mu)$ a $\mu$-finite measure space. Denote by $\bar{L}^0(\Sigma)$ the set of extended-real valued $\Sigma$-measurable functions. Does this set have the countable sup property when ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

539 views

### When is the set of measurable functions a vector space?

I know this is not a research question, but I searched somewhat thoroughly and could not find the exact answer I want. But I've always wondered the following: suppose that $(X,\mathcal{M})$ is a ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

183 views

### Loeb measures and non-standard hull of Banach spaces

$\DeclareMathOperator\Fin{Fin}$I am trying to understand the notion of "liftings" of Loeb measurable functions to internal, internally measurable functions, and its connection to non-...

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votes

**1**answer

91 views

### Measurability of superposition operator with non-separable Banach space

Let $f\colon I \times X \to \mathbb{R}$ be a map where $I \subset \mathbb{R}$ is an interval, $X$ is a Banach space (possibly non-separable) and we have
$$t \mapsto f(t,x) \text{ is measurable}$$
$$x \...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

105 views

### Measurable selection for argmin to distance

Let $Y$ be a Banach space and equip $Y$ with the weak topology. Now, let $X$ be a closed, bounded, and convex subset of $Y$ and suppose that the relative (weak) topology on $X$ is metrizable with ...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

176 views

### Sharp assumption for preserving Lebesgue measurability by left composition

Let $g: [0, 1] \to \mathbb R$ be a Lebesgue-measurable function (in the classical sense: the inverse images of Borel sets are Lebesgue-measurable). It is a classical fact in analysis that $f \circ g$ ...

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78 views

### Measurability of infimum function

In Theorem 14.37 of Variational Analysis by Rockafellar and Wets, it shows that for any normal integrand $f:T\times \mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$, the function $p:T\to \mathbb{R}$ given by
$p(t):=\inf f(t,⋅...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

119 views

### Friedland metric entropy

I was asking if it is possible to extend the definition of topological Friedland entropy for $\mathbb{Z}^d$ continuos actions to measure preserving actions.
The topologica Friedland entropy is ...

**3**

votes

**1**answer

142 views

### $L_p(I,Y)^\perp=L_q(I,Y^\perp)$?

Let $X$ be a Banach space and $Y$ be a closed subspace of $X$. For $1<p<\infty$ consider the $p$-th power Bochner Integrable functions which takes values in $X$ and defined on the unit interval $...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

347 views

### Transport of measure

Let's disintegrate $\mu$ and $\nu$, two probabilities on $\mathbb{R}^{d}$ , according to
$$
\pi_{k} (x_{1},...,x_{d}) = (x_{k},...,x_{d})
$$
We get a family of measures and each measure $\mu_{k,d}^{+...

**2**

votes

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821 views

### Supremum of continuous functions and essential supremum of continuous functions

Suppose that $(X,d)$ is a Polish metric space and $A$ is a set of continuous bounded functions $f:X\to \mathbb{R}$.
Suppose that $\mu:X\to[0,1]$ is a Borel probability measure.
Define
$$\sup A:X\to ...

**5**

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184 views

### Radon-Nikodym derivatives with parameters?

Suppose that $(A,\Sigma_A)$ and $(X,\Sigma_X)$ are measurable spaces, and that
$$
\mu,\nu \: : \: A \times \Sigma_X \rightarrow [0,1]
$$
are Markov kernels, i.e. probability measures on $X$ ...

**1**

vote

**2**answers

138 views

### Measurable selection for maximum process

Let $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},(\mathcal{F}_t)_{t\geq 0},\mathbb{P})$ be a complete filtered probability space, where $(\mathcal{F}_t)_{t\geq 0}$ is the completed Brownian filtrate. Suppose that $\Phi(t,x)$ ...

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votes

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108 views

### dense subalgebra in measurable functions set

Take $\mathcal M_D$ the space of measurable functions from a compact set $D\subseteq \mathbb R_n$ to ℂ.
I'm wondering if a Stone-Weierstrass-like theorem holds in this space, with the convergence in ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

693 views

### Are Bochner measurablity and Borel measurability compatible?

Let $(X,\mathfrak{M})$ be a measurable space and $E$ be a Banach space and $f:(X,\mathfrak{M})\rightarrow E$ be a function.
Question
Are Borel-measurable condition on $f$ and Bochner-measurable ...

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vote

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114 views

### Is total variation $\mu(\cdot) \mapsto |\mu|(\cdot)$ Borel measurable from $M$ to $M$?

Let $M$ be the space of finite signed measures on $\mathbb{R}$, equipped with the topology of weak convergence of measures. I would like to know if taking the total variation of a measure is a ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

78 views

### Implications of a Regularity Condition for Functions

$
\newcommand{\essSup}{\mathop{\rm sup_{ess}}\nolimits}
$
What can be concluded from the fact, that $f: X\ni x\mapsto f(x)\in [a,b]\subset\mathbb{R}\setminus\lbrace{-\infty,+\infty\rbrace} $ ...

**2**

votes

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257 views

### Does equality almost everywhere on a product imply equality almost everywhere on sections [closed]

(This question was on MSE, with no answers)
Consider two $\sigma$-finite measure spaces $X_1$ and $X_2$, and $X=X_1\times X_2$ the product measure space (a priori non-completed).
Take two functions ...

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107 views

### A measurable implicit function with differentiated arguments

I have encountered the need for an unusual implicit function theorem, about which I know very little. I would appreciate it if someone could help me with a few pointers.
The setup is as follows. Let $...

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**2**answers

161 views

### Weak continuity of a vector valued function [closed]

Let $f:[0,1]\to \ell_\infty[0,1]$ be defined by $f(t)=\chi_{[0,t]}$. Is it true that $f$ is weakly continuous almost everywhere w.r.t. Lebesgue measure ? Here $\ell_\infty[0,1]$ represents the ...

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votes

**3**answers

580 views

### When Banach indicatrix is measurable?

Let $f:X\to Y$ is a measurable function. Banach indicatrix
$$
N(y,f) = \#\{x\in X \mid f(x) = y\}
$$
is the number of the pre-images of $y$ under $f$. If there are infinitely many pre-images then $N(y,...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

326 views

### Is the following "section-wise" defined function measurable in the product space?

I asked this question in mathstackexchange a couple of days ago. Almost right after posing it a partial (affirmative) answer came to my mind in the following form
Proposition: Assume that $(X,\...

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**0**answers

159 views

### Progressive measurability and functional composition

Suppose we have a progressively measurable process $X$ taking values in $\mathbb{R}^d$.
What are sufficient conditions on a function $$f( x, t, \omega ) \colon \mathbb{R}^d \times [0,\infty) \...

**5**

votes

**2**answers

560 views

### Exotic Lebesgue Measurable Function

Measurable functions whose graphs are dense in the plane are well known. Examples include, the Conway 13 function, as given in the answer in this link: When is the graph of a function a dense set?
...

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vote

**1**answer

595 views

### Functional representation of adapted jointly measurable stochastic processes

It seems like the question stated here in MSE has no answer yet and seems therefore for me to be not of a basic question type. For this reason I move it to MO.
Let $X_t : \Omega \to E, \ t \geq 0$ be ...

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334 views

### Approximating a measurable function from a second-countable, locally compact Hausdorff group to a separable Banach space

Let $ G $ be a second-countable, locally compact Hausdorff group and $ B $ a separable Banach space.
We say that a function $ f: G \to B $ is Bochner-measurable if and only if it is the everywhere ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

418 views

### The Notion of Strong Measurability for Separable Banach Spaces

Let $ (X,\Sigma,\mu) $ be a measure space and $ B $ a Banach space. According to my understanding, a function $ f: X \to B $ is said to be strongly $ \mu $-measurable if and only if it is the almost-...

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195 views

### Measurability of a map that takes a functional to its composition with a linear operator

Let $(X,\Sigma_X)$ be a measurable space such that $\Sigma_X$ is countably generated.
Let $B_b(X)$ be the Banach space of all bounded $\Sigma_X$-measurable functions $X\to\mathbb{R}$ equipped with the ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

154 views

### Measurability of functions with multiple parameters

For a formalisation of the Giry monad in a theorem prover, I think I require some notion of measurability of “curried” functions. I.e. I have measure spaces $A$, $B$, and $C$ and a function $f: A \...

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**1**answer

981 views

### Is the "continuous on compact subsets" characterization of measurable functions actually useful?

According to Lusin's theorem (and the slightly weaker converse of that result), measurable functions on locally compact topological spaces that are equipped with a regular measure may be characterized ...

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**1**answer

247 views

### Volume-preserving mappings in the torus $T^n$

Let $T^n$ be the $n$-dimensional torus and let $F$ be the set of all volume preserving continuous mappings $f:T^n\to T^n$. I would like to know if $F$ is connected in the sense that for any $f\in F$ ...

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280 views

### Is reflexive Banach space valued scalarwise Lebesgue space isomorphic to the Bochner space?

I first specify the setting and then formulate the question precisely. (A very long post follows.)
Definitions 1. For $E$ a (real Hausdorff) locally convex space, say that $E$ is suitable iff there ...

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votes

**1**answer

227 views

### Is scalarly measurable simply measurable?

More specifically, consider the following particular situation: Let $I=[0,1]$ with the standard Borel $\sigma$-algebra. Consider functions $y:I\times I\to I$. Say that $y$ is scalarly measurable iff $...

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7k views

### The image of a measurable set under a measurable function.

Let $f:X \rightarrow (Y, \mathcal{Y})$ be an abstract function, with $\mathcal{Y}$ a $\sigma$-algebra on $Y$. Endow $X$ with $f^{-1}(\mathcal{Y})$. Is then $f(X)$ a measurable set in $Y$? If not, are ...

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122 views

### Is scalarwise measurability determined by the strong dual?

Since this question has not received an answer so far, I try to reformulate the question in a simpler manner as follows: Do there exist $E,F,\ell,f$ such that
$E$ and $F$ are separable (real) Banach ...

**10**

votes

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2k views

### Good examples of random variables whose image is not a measurable set?

Are their simple/natural examples of real-valued Borel-measurable random variables whose image is not a Borel set? Something that occurs "naturally"?
I am teaching Doob's lemma (for two real-valued ...

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**2**answers

725 views

### Opinions on the Multiplication of Measures

A few questions, hopefully to spark some discussion.
How can one define a product of measures?
We could use Colombeau products by embedding the measures into the distributions? I'm not sure why this ...

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vote

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353 views

### Unambiguous "weak" vector valued $L^{+\infty}$ spaces?

For some time, I have been stuck to the problem to be described as follows. The (perhaps not so commonly known) facts given here are taken from R. E. Edwards' Functional Analysis (Holt, Rinehart and ...